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Cicero-North Syracuse High School
6002 Route 31
Cicero, NY 13039
(315) 218-4100
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In-Text Citations

Every time you use a source in a class project (this includes research papers, PowerPoint presentation, etc...) you must include an in-text citation. In-text citations are used to document the sources of your information in the body of your research paper.

 

To avoid plagiarism, we need to provide the source of the information in a citation. The reader of the paper will know where the information came from by referring to the list of works cited at the end of the paper.

 

In-Text Citations Tips:

In-text citations must include the author's last name (if you do not have an author, use the 1st important word in the title in quotations marks) and the paragraph number(s) for electronic sources and the page number(s) for print sources.

Use par. for single paragraphs and pars. for more than one.

 

In-text citations are enclosed in parentheses (  ) are a part of the sentence, therefore, they come before the period.

If you introduce your author in the beginning of your sentence, you do not need to include it again in the parentheses, just include the page or paragraph number(s).

If you quote an author, enclose the quote in quotation marks "   " and then add the in-text citation followed by a period.

 

Examples (Electronic Sources):

Direct Quote - Introducing Author: Brenner states in his article,"plagiarism is not only a problem in high schools, but also in colleges" (par. 30).

Direct Quote w/o introducing: "Most babies are not being vaccinated and this is resulting in more cases of whooping cough" (Stein, par. 45).

Paraphrase: Last winter was very mild, people are worried that this winter will the worst one seen in years (Stein, par. 7).

2 Authors: (Smith and Barkley, par. 5).

3 or more Authors: (Smith et al., pars. 10-12).

No Author: Instead of candidates spreading lies about each other, it would be more helpful if the truth was stated ("Words," par. 1).

Information from a person or organization referenced in an article: "quoted sentence"(qtd. in Last name, par. #).

Photographs/Pictures: Include the copyright symbol followed by the creator of the picture followed by the copyright date.

Example:

© Creator's Name, 2007

No Creator: Use Title of Image in Quotation Marks

 © "Title of Image," 2007

No Date: Use n.d.

© Creator's Name, n.d.

© "Title of Image," n.d.

 

Examples (Print Sources - no commas):

Paraphrase: Last winter was very mild, people are worried that this winter will the worst one seen in years (Colby 75).

Quote: "Most babies are not being vaccinated and this is resulting in more cases of whooping cough" (Colby 45).

2 Authors: (Smith and Barkley 5).

3 Authors: (Smith, Jones and Tyler 10-12).

More than 3 Authors: Put the last name of the 1st author listed and replace all of the other names with et al. (Smith et al. 98).

No Author: Instead of candidates spreading lies about each other, it would be more helpful if the truth was stated ("Words" 1).

Introducing Author: Brenner states in his article that plagiarism in not only a problem in high schools, but also in colleges (3).

Information from a person or organization referenced in an article: "quoted sentence"(qtd. in Last name par. #).

Photographs/Pictures: Include the title of the picture in quotation marks followed by the copyright date. Example: ("Rainbows," 2007).




CNS High School Library
North Syracuse
Cicero-North Syracuse High School
6002 Rt. 31
Cicero, New York 13039